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Chronic obstructive bronchitis and smoking, the risks and care

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Increase the risks of being affected by chronic bronchitis for “suffering” from smoking, or smoke, which is not a disease but certainly a practice that can affect the respiratory health.

A disease that is still among the leading causes of death worldwide and in Italy that afflicts about 4 million people, and, these days, is the focus of conferences and is constantly challenged by research on medications and treatments that might affect on bronchitis symptoms.

Upset couple finding out results of a pregnancy test

Upset couple finding out results of a pregnancy test

What is chronic obstructive bronchitis?

It is a disease which affects the airways causing the obstruction, whose main causes are precisely aspiration dates of cigarette smoke or fumes and irritating vapors from industrial processes and containing harmful substances to the airways.

Anciently known as chronic obstructive bronchitis and sixties COPD – chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, this disease attacks the bronchial tubes and lungs, and in its chronic stage from which there is no cure, is characterized by a substantial reduction in the flow of air in the lungs or bronchial obstruction.

Breathing is difficult, it gets worse over time and inflammation of the airways are frequent, and then become chronic lung inflammation, resulting in destruction of lung tissue and a constant state of pulmonary emphysema.

Among the main symptoms of chronic bronchitis, dyspnea or labored breathing, cough and persistent phlegm production.

 

Respiratory problems and Bronchitis

bronchiteLe airways comprise a tree structure which terminates in the pulmonary alveoli, where the blood is charged with oxygen in the air resulting from inspiration and is free of carbon dioxide, which will be eliminated in the exhalation.

An automatic and rapid process, which in the case of chronic obstructive bronchitis is not so fast, since the air goes in and out with difficulty by the constricted airways now from complications of smoke, accumulation of mucous secretions and by the contractions of the muscle cells , that determine lung thick walls and swollen (edema).

Even oxidative stress, or cellular aging, occurs in chronic obstructive bronchitis as in other respiratory conditions, such as imbalance due to dysfunction of the antioxidant defense mechanisms.

The production process and the elimination of internal oxidants cells is not balanced and, moreover, often exogenous oxidants or external such as cigarette smoke and the environmental pollution by smoke are able to trigger negative consequences at the level broncho-pulmonary.

The main cause of the aging of cells is given by the peroxidation of lipid membranes, a phenomenon that also leads to the excessive secretion of mucus, which combine the failure of antiproteases activation, or proteins that counteract processes of destruction of lung elastic fabric, and that inhibits the smoke from their beneficial action, causing pulmonary emphysema.

There are, in oxidation and cell aging, various inflammations of the airways that cause damage or alveolar epithelium to connective tissue essential for the processes of inhalation and exhalation. These inflammations affect the airways so permanent and create the conditions for chronic obstructive bronchitis.

 

Drug therapies for chronic bronchitis

bronchitis cronicaLa pathology of chronic obstructive bronchitis is complex and the most commonly used therapies usually for the treatment of symptoms and pathology are based on bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids, which relieve the symptoms but fail to affect the internal pathophysiological mechanism.

To decrease the acute stages and slow the functional decline of the disease, is often used the molecule of N-acetyl cysteine, or NAC, mucolytic drug can thin the mucus in the bronchi and upper respiratory tract.

For over 50 years this medication self-medication is known as a therapeutic tool for COPD and other respiratory diseases. These pathologies also serious symptoms such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, in particular in cases characterized by a strong secretion, thanks to its mucolytic and antioxidant action to counter the status of oxidative stress that is generated by the respiratory chronic inflammation.

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